Timeline of Mythic Britian

NOTE: The events which are not part of the historical record are taken from several sources:
Events outlined in various Ars Magica materials, including the essay "History of the Order of Hermes" by Mark D. F. Shirley at the Durenmar website.
Events from the Mythic Europe of various sagas played by our troupe.
Events from the Kull/Conan canon of Robert E. Howard et al.
Mythic events commonly cited in Britian's History. Some of the dates adotped here do not coincide with their normally accepted occurrences.

c. 14,000 B.C.
Pre-Cataclysmic civilization is devastated by geological upheavals. The continents of Atlantis and Lemuria sink into oblivion, and the greatest kingdoms (Kamelia, Valusia, Verulia, Grondar, Thule, and Commoria) regress into barbarity

c. 9,500 B.C.
A second cataclysm ends the Hyborian Age. Much of the world's magical knowledge is locked away in the vaults of Stygia, to be rediscovered by its Egyptian descendants. The British Isles become the highest peaks of Cimmeria and Pictland that remain above the Atlantic.

c. 3,500 B.C.
Evidence of sustained agriculture and ceremonial burials in England.

c. 2,500 B.C.
Hermes Trismegistos discovers much of the hidden secrets of ancient Stygia. Egypt's most powerful magicians found the Order of Thoth.

c. 930 B.C.
King Solomon establishes a school for Jewish mystics in Jerusalem.

c. 700s B.C.
Phoenician sailors visit Britian, trading for Cornish tin.

c. 530 B.C.
Pythagoras founds the Cult of Hermes, based on the Order of Thoth and his own studies in numerology.

B.C. 331
Alexander the Great, welcomed into Egypt as a god at the Oracle of Siwa, discovers the Emerald Tablet -- containing much of the corpus of Egyptian magic as codified by Hermes Trismegistos.

c. 200 B.C.
Celtic civilization flourishes in England.

c. 175 B.C.
Plentarch, high priest of the Temple of Mercury in Pompeii, distills the ritual magics of the Cult into 38 spells.

B.C. 139
Age of Aries Begins.

B.C. 55
Julius Ceasar lands an expeditionary force in the south of England to root out the Belgic tribes aiding the Gauls. He is repulsed by fiercer resistance than expected.

A.D. 35
Joseph of Arimathea and the Rich Fisher bring the Holy Grail to Britian; Chapel of St. Joseph established at Glastonbury.

A.D. 43
Emperor Claudius invades at Rutupiae with plans to settle permanently. Roman troops range far and wide across Britian, but native fortitude hinders the Roman advance in Cambria and Caledonia. The Second Legion under the command of future emperor Vespasian sacks Maiden Castle -- a stronghold, along with Bryn-Celli-Ddu on Angelsey, of Druidic resistance.

A.D. 61
Revolt led by Boudicca, queen of the Iceni, requires a clampdown on native tribes.

c. 115
The Ninth Legion is annihilated in an ambush by Caledonian tribesman along the River Tay.

A.D. 120
Hadrian's Wall is built to keep marauding Picts in Caledonia.

c. 200s
Mithraism flourishes as the last pagan religion in the Roman Empire; priests of Mithra build a temple with extensive underground chambers in Londinium.

A.D. 313
Roman Emperor Constantine adopts Christianity. Those who resist, including the flagging Cult of Mercury, continue their traditions in secret as Britian is proselytized.

A.D. 383
Hadrian's Wall is abandoned; Emperor Theodosius begins the gradual recall of the legions stationed in Britian. An ancestor of Constantine, Bendigiet Custennin, is declared king by the remnants of the Roman army.

A.D. 385
Vortigern usurps the throne and exiles Bendigiet's family to Armorica. After he marries the daughter of the Jute warlord Hengist, whose mercenaries assisted the rebellion, the gradual migration of Saxons to Britain begins.

A.D. 389
Merlin is born to a nun, raped by a demon that had assumed a holy or fae guise.

A.D. 398
Merlin begins tutelage under the wizard Blaise, who introduces his young pupil to the Druidic traditions of Gwyddbwyll.

A.D. 399
The Roman general Stilicho arrives to repulse an invasion led by the Irish King Niall-of-the-Nine-Hostages. Hengist betrays both Romans and Britons on the Night of the Long Knives, reducing Vortigern to a figurehead, ruling in name only from his forlorn citadel in Wales.

A.D. 400
Merlin moves the Giant's Dance from Ireland to Salisbury Plain to honor the victims of the Saxon treachery, prompting Blaise to pronounce his studies complete. The two wizards convince the remnants of the Druids, Priests of Mithra, and the Cult of Mercury, to maintain the monument jointly.

c. 400s
A pagan revival begins, fostered by the increasing Saxon presence, and the informal alliance begat at Stonehenge. Services to Celtic and Roman gods are resumed before a new altar at Maiden Castle.

A.D. 409
Uther, the only surviving son of Bendigiet, returns from exile. He kills the last of Vortigern's sons and assumes the British throne.

A.D. 410
In response to a request to end the flight of Roman defenders, the Emperor Honorius announces that Britian is on its own. Britons come to view their "request" as a declaration of independence from Rome.

A.D. 411
Ygraine gives birth to Arthur, conceived when Uther, disguised by Merlin as her husband, seduces her after having defeated Gorlöis in battle. As payment, Merlin takes Arthur to Sir Hector, who raises him as his own son.

A.D. 429
Arthur, now the squire of Hector's oldest son Kay, draws the Sword in the Stone at a tournament.

A.D. 431
Arthur is crowned King in the City of Legions, after the last of the nobles to refute his claim to the throne relents.

A.D. 433
The Knight Balan wounds King Pellam, the ancestor of the Rich Fisher, with the Spear of Destiny. After the Dolorous Stroke, his kingdom becomes a wasteland.

A.D. 435
Nimue imprisons Merlin within a secret cave with his own magics.

A.D. 458
Arthur wins his greatest battle over invading Saxons at Badon Hill.

A.D. 485
King Arthur and Mordred slay each other in battle. Deprived of a strong native ruler, Britian is subjugated by invading Angles, Saxons, and Jutes.

c. 550-620s
Irish missionary activity, aimed at converting the pagan newcomers, is at its height in England and in Scotland. However, in its isolation the Celtic Church has grown apart from the Roman ways.

A.D. 600
Saint Augustine of Canterbury arrives in Britian to return the Catholic Church to England.

A.D. 663
At the Synod of Whitby the Northumbrian King Oswy chooses the Roman Catholic reckoning of Easter over the Celtic Church's, signifying the recognition of the former as the official church of Britian.

A.D. 730
King Offa of Mercia builds a dike along the troubled border with Wales.

A.D. 731
Trianoma, Bonisagus, and Carpandus meet at Durenmar to discuss creating the Order.

A.D. 767[Feb. 12]
Bonisagus founds the Order of Hermes.

A.D. 773
Tribunal system adopted; House Mercere founded to relay information throughout the order.

A.D. 792
Covenant of Palma Sorvioduni founded near Stonehenge.

A.D. 793
First Viking raids at Lindisfarne.

A.D. 799
Quendalon, primus of Merinita after her disappearance, is given up for lost after entering a faerie forest.

c. 800s
The height of the first wave of Viking invasions. Many of the raiders settle permanently in the area known as the Danelaw, with its capital at Jorvik (York).

A.D. 801
Quendalon reemerges from the faerie forest. Many Merinita magi doubt his identity, leading to a protracted battle for house supremacy.

A.D. 802
The magus Jerbiton resigns from the service of Charlemagne, resulting from the latter's coronation by the Pope. Secret consultations between magus and king continue for some time thereafter.

A.D. 807
The monastery of Clonmacnoise, founded in A.D. 565, becomes the Domus Magnus of House Arteman. This is aided by the unique aura of the Celtic Church, whose dominion does not detract from the powerful illusions that conceal the Hermetic presence.

A.D. 810
At Tremere's behest, Guernicus codifies the rules of Certamen as an alternate to settling disputes with mortal magical combat.

A.D. 814
First battle of Pralix scholae Tytali and Damhan-allaidh, a renegade wizard, in Brittany. He later flees to his home in the Scottish highlands.

A.D. 815
Guernicus formalizes the rules and procedures for Wizard's War after resolution of the conflict within Merinitia -- which has effectively split into two branches.

A.D. 816
After the defeat of Damhan-allaidh in Scotland, Pralix founds the Ordo Miscellanea to extend protection to her non-Hermetic allies.

A.D. 817
Trianoma persuades Pralix to reunite with the Order. House Ex Miscellanea is established at Cad Gadu for the new members. The tribunal retains the name of the monument Merlin used to unite the various traditions of the island. While the Scottish Diedne move north, founding the covenant of Holy Oak, the Welsh remain close to their Gwyddbwyll ties at Cad Gadu.

A.D. 843-849
Diedne magi assist the Scottish King Kenneth MacAlpin in his conquest of the Picts.

A.D. 878
The Viking armies are defeated at Edington, resulting in their grudging acceptance of Christianity.

A.D. 889
Second battle of Pralix and Damhan-allaidh.

c. 900
Verderis, third Primus of Criamon, writes the Travels of Fedoso.

A.D. 978
Second wave of Viking invasions follow the end of the Danish royal line in England.

A.D. 1003
Schism War begins.

A.D. 1012
House Diedne destroyed, along with several Scottish covenants. Because of their ties to the Diedne, Gwyddbwyll establishes their independence, formally becoming a new house. One (now discredited) source states that in secret encounters with influential tribunal members, Merlin intervenes on behalf of his magical descendants during the negotiations. His legacy, and the combined influence of Criamon, Merinita, Jerbiton and Ex Miscellanea, allows the new House to survive its baptism of fire. However, the authority of Pralix' house does not emerge unscathed, as control of the Stonehenge Tribunal's affairs is moved to Palma Sorvioduni.

A.D. 1016
Saxon acceptance of Canute as king ends the second major Viking migration to England.

A.D. 1027
The mage Nerius, slain in 1002 defending the rights of Diedne, is canonized by the church.

A.D. 1066
Three factions press a claim to the vacant English throne. Current king Harold Godwinson defeats an invading army of Vikings at Stamford bridge, but his beleaguered troops are in turn bested by a Norman force at Hastings.

A.D. 1099
Several Flambeau stalk hedge wizards in the Scottish Highlands until they are stopped by MacGruagach covenant and Brude Deathless.

A.D. 1120
The Norman King Henry I's son perishes in the disaster of the White Ship. His daughter Mathilda becomes heir-apparent.

A.D. 1135-48
The Anarchy, a period of civil unrest between Mathilda and Henry's nephew Stephen, the Count de Blois, depletes the armies and treasuries of the kindgom. It is resolved by placing Mathilda's son Henry II on the throne.

A.D. 1145
Stonehenge, Loch Leglean and Hibernian Tribunals adopt the Partitio Monaviae, declaring the Isle of Man neutral territory until a viable covenant exists there. This gesture is merely a political one, as the two previous Manx covenants had been destroyed within twelve months.

A.D. 1170
Four knights of Henry II murder Thomas Becket before the altar at Canterbury cathedral.

A.D. 1189
The Loch Leglean tribunal adopts the Pact of Crun Clach, forbidding its magi from interfering with politics.

A.D. 1190
Caught up in the celebration of Richard's coronation, pogroms sweep the countryside. The Jewish population of York is massacred by a mob that includes many of their debtors.

A.D. 1190-1
En route to the Holy Land, Richard stops in Sicily to reclaim his sister Joanna's dowry. After six months of tension, the dispute is resolved. Richard gives Excalibur to Tancred to cement their relationship.

c. 1190s
John Lackland, administering Britian during his brother's German captivity, is harried by Robert of Locksley, the deposed lord of Hode.

A.D. 1202
After two years of turmoil following Richard's death, John captures his nephew Arthur of Brittany, his main rival for the throne. Arthur mysteriously disappears soon thereafter.

A.D. 1215
England's most powerful nobles persuade King John to grant them many personal and property rights in the Magna Carta. This is not enough; for before the year is out many are in rebellion.

A.D. 1216
While fording a river in the Fens, John's army and train get caught in a sudden change of tides. A large portion of the King's treasure is sewpt away, and he dies soon thereafter. Some isolated magi suspect that the proximity to Blackthorn is more than coincidence. John's nine-year-old son Henry is crowned king, with William Marshall as his regent.

A.D. 1227
Henry III receives the Pope's approval to rule independently and announces his intention to retake Plantagenet lands in France. Friction arises between his supporters and the barons allied behind Hugh de Burgh, regent since Marhsall's death in 1219.